Next Generation, 4G Technology


Race for 4G is just getting started in the market, before proceeding let's have a brief look at previous technologies.
The very Classic Public Switched Telephone Network(PSTN) achieved in 1980's.
Later on First Generation Analog Systems with Speech, AMPS and TACS were introduced.
Then the Second Generation Digital System comes with enhanced capacity and features like DMA,D-AMPOS,TDMA,GSM,DECT and PDC.After the second generation, the very popular Third Generation Systems with wireless- WiFi/HyperLAN, WiMAX/HyperWAN, CDMA2000/WCDMA along with evolution to all IP networks including VoIP.

Difference between 3G and 4G:

Attribute
3G
4G
Major Characteristics
Predominantly voice data as add-on
Converged data and VoIP
Network Architecture
Wide area cell based
Hybrid-Integration of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wide area
Frequency band
1.6-2.5 GHz
2-8 GHz
Bandwidth
5-20 MHz
100+ MHz
Component Design
Optimized Antenna, multi-band adapters
Smart Antenna, SW multi-band; wideband radios
Data Rate
385 Kbps to 2 Mbps
20-100 Mbps
Access
WCDMA/CDMA2000
MC-CDMA or OFDM
IP
Multiple version
All IP(IPv6.0)
switching
Circuit/packet
Packet
Forward error correction
Convolution code 1/2., 1/3;turbo
Concatenated coding

Continuing to the 4G technology..


After the success of Smart phones and intelligent mobile devices with support of 3G service,
4G is no longer a possibility but a reality. It is a new Air interface of very high bit rate services, which is convergence of Wireline, Wireless and IP worlds.
Today where Smart phones can provide a wide range of mobile broadband applications and services, which require higher bandwidth and lower latency to deliver expected service quality.


For example, a video stream viewed on a tablet computer might require HD-quality bandwidth with rapid access to large cached Over-The-Top (OTT) content lies to achieve the consistent video download required for smooth playback. 


How-ever, delivering such applications and services can quickly overwhelm the capacity of current 3G wireless networks and associated back haul networks.
So MNOs world-wide are adopting the new wireless technologies, including WiMAX, HSPA+, and LTE. These next-generation technologies address the limitations of mobile radio access, enabling the necessary high throughput and low latency.


4G is all about an integrated, global network that's based on an open systems approach. The primary aim of 4G is to replace the current proliferation of core cellular networks with a single worldwide cellular core network standard based on IP for control, video, packet data, and VoIP.
Integrated 4G mobile system provides wireless users an affordable broadband mobile access solutions for the applications of secured wireless mobile Internet services with value-added QoS.Its Stream Control transmission protocol(SCTP), maintains several data streams within a single connection. SCTP is a successor of SS7 and replacement to TCP.
The Service location protocol (SLP) give automatic resource discovery, which make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based service and directory agents.
4G technology has Integration of AAA protocol providing Unified Authentication, Authorization and Accounting, this authenticates entity's identity, checks whether entity is authorized for given activity and track network resources.

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