What is CLR (Common Runtime Language) ?

.NET programs are compiled by the language compilers into assemblies that consist of MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) instructions. MSIL is a CPU-independent set of instructions.

CLR provides a runtime environment in which programs are executed for .NET applications that have been compiled to MSIL and it is provided by the .NET Framework.

CLR provides a number of services, including the following:

·        Code management (loading and execution)
·        Application memory isolation
·        Verification of type safety
·        Conversion of IL to native code
·        Access to metadata (enhanced type information)
·        Managing memory for managed objects
·        Enforcement of code access security
·        Exception handling, including cross-language exceptions
·        Interoperation between managed code, COM objects, and pre-existing DLLs (unmanaged code and data)
·        Automation of object layout
·        Support for developer services (profiling, debugging, and so on) 

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